LNG and natural gas are essential in any company's energy transition as they play an instrumental role in shifting away from coal and reducing carbon emissions. LNG is natural gas cooled down to liquid form (at -163°C/-260°F) for ease and safety of storage and transportation. The entire LNG value chain includes many steps:
- Pre-treatment: removal of dust, slug, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mercury (Hg), and other pollutants to avoid corrosion, clogging and freezing problems downstream.
- Acid gas removal and dehydration: CO2 is removed in the amine absorber, and an adsorbent is used to remove water so that ice will not form during liquefaction.
- Heavy hydrocarbon separation and liquefaction: C5+ are removed by fractionation before the gas is precooled and liquefied.
- Storage & Transport: LNG carriers require anti-icing solutions when navigating through cold waters. Cryogenic tanks require frost heave prevention systems for safe storage.
- Regasification: the LNG is converted back to natural gas onshore or on floating barges (FSRU’s).
- Distribution: the gas is transported at high pressure (typically 80 bar/1200psi) through a vast pipeline network, with compressor stations at regular intervals to filter out condensate.
The entire LNG value chain requires nVent RAYCHEM mission critical solutions for energy-efficient, safe and reliable operation.